Section II Some Specific Problems
In this section, I will estimate and design some specific problems of the greatly unified society according to the maximum value principle. The greatly unified society will face many problems, what I hereby put forward are only some most important ones.
I. Problems about Nation, Nationality and Religion
Throughout history after mankind entered national society, the most stable, and also the most powerful groups among human societies are nation, nationality and religion, particularly nation, which is the highest authority in national society.
Concepts of nation, nationality and religion are deeply rooted in people’s heart, people from the same country think they all belong to a same collectiveness, likewise, people from the same nationality or having the same religion think they belong to a same collectiveness. People are often far away from home, but when such two persons that are mutually strange meet, the relationship between them will be much closer after he learns that the other one comes from the same country or same nationality, or has the same religion with himself; when conflict breaks out between different persons, or war between different groups, enemy and friend is naturally separated by country, nationality or religion in people’s mind. We call such characteristic of country, nationality and religion as “group identity role”.
The inherent group identity role of nation, nationality and religion could integrate society and cohere groups, and we call this role as society cohesion role of nation, nationality and religion.
While corresponding to above roles, country, nationality and religion also have “group rejection role” and "society dissociation role". For example, if a large country consists of many small countries used to independent, then in governance of the large country, mutual rejection and hostility between these previous small countries will often occur, or some of these small countries will try to get independent again; in multi-nationality country, it is inevitable that the nationalities are enstranged from each other, with conflicts occur often, and some nationalities often trying to get independent or self-governed; in multi-religion country, it is also inevitable that different religions are antagonistic to each other, with some group linked by religion trying to get independent.
Group identity role, society cohesion role, group rejection role and society disassociation role are all component parts of roles of country, nationality and religion, which refer to both kinds of roles that are antagonistic.
Just because nation, nationality and religion have such unique functions, these three groups are playing an irreplaceable positive role in human society. For example, powers of nation, nationality and religion have accelerated expansion of human groups, promoted spreading of fruits of human civilization, and created many incredibly amazing social miracles, in process of which human evolved from primitive tribe to modern society, and from barbarism to civilization. But it is also obvious that most of the bloodiest wars in human history and terrorist attacks were caused by these three powers also. Almost all positive functions of nation, nationality and religion to human society correspond with equivalent negative functions, and all these are results of interaction of inherent functions of the powers.
By further analysis of two kinds of functions of nation, nationality and religion, we can find out that group identity function and society cohesion function of nation, nationality and religion functions within a nation, nationality or religion, while to the contrary, group rejection function and society disassociation function of nation, nationality and religion functions externally, or in other words, different countries, nationalities and religions tend to reject and separate from each other.
Because of such rejection and disassociation functions of nation, nationality and religion, and the greatly unified society need to unify all nations, nationalities and religions in one society, the functions of nation, nationality and religion that will take effect in the great unification undertaking will not be group identity function or society cohesion function, but group rejection function and society disassociation function only, and such rejection and disassociation function will certainly become barrier and ruinous factor in the progress of great unification. Furthermore, as nation, nationality and religion are the strongest power in human society, their roles will be detrimental to the great unification undertaking, and to handle problems in these three aspects correctly is the most important work of the great unification undertaking.
Comprehensive analysis shows that damages of nation, nationality and religion to social cohesion and negative effects to social stabilization and harmony are different each other.
When the greatly unified society is realized, nations will have perish, with what left as a kind of national consciousness only, the so called national consciousness is the consciousness of seeking for regional independence, which is a kind of typical disassociation consciousness. As national consciousness exists, it will inevitably exert negative effects, to fundamentally eliminate negative effects of national consciousness, national consciousness in people’s mind must be removed as clean as possible.
Thus, we should weaken previous nation’s regional concept, so that to weaken people’s national consciousness occurred because of their national identity. To achieve this purpose, the most effective method is to encourage free flow of people, particularly long-distance flow. There are many methods to encourage free flow, including encouraging global economic activity to integrate global economy, which is also promoting and encouraging free flow of people.
There is another kind of national consciousness, which is the pure hope of governing an area independently. To get rid of such national consciousness, publicity of harms of country must be enhanced. What is equivalently important is to keep balanced development of different regions. If global development is almost in the same level in aspects including economy, culture and society, people naturally will not have the feeling that his region is quite different from others, and passion of regional disassociation will be rare.
Again on nationality issue, as long as nationality exists, negative effects of nationality factor to the greatly unified society will inevitably exist. To eliminate negative effects of nationality factor to the greatly unified society, the most effective method, also the most fundamental solution is to eliminate national concept.
To eliminate national concept is to continuously mix nationalities, assimilate them, and form an integral at last, or in other words, mix different nationalities, never separate, there is the concept of “human being” for the whole world, and make nationality a history.
In a world without nationality, hatred and disassociation activities caused by nationalities will disappear also, what’s more, all negative effects like ethnocentrism, national prejudice, national inferiority complex and national revenge caused by nationalities will all disappear naturally.
Ethnic fusion includes two aspects, respectively as blood fusion and cultural fusion. In aspect of blood fusion, the greatly unified society should encourage intermarriage between different nationalities and races. Cultural fusion comprises many contents, including not only cultural identity, but also uniform language, characters, belief, moral and ethic consciousness and behavior criteria, all of which should be greatly promoted by the greatly unified society.
Only when human being has realized fusion both in aspects of blood and culture, can we announce that nationality has perished, and there is only one name that is “human being”.
As regarding to religion factor, it is likewise that as long as many religions or sects co-exist with each other, negative effects of religion will not be eliminated. Unification of religion will be much more complex than ethnic fusion, in real life, we could feel that people are more willing to accept wife or husband of a different skin color than to accept wife or husband of different religious belief. We may also feel that even a life-time’s ideological work will be useless to convert a Muslim to Christian, and to convert a Christian to Buddhist is also very difficult. Features of religions show that different religions will deny and repel each other, the more mature the religions are, such denial and hatred among religions are more intense. Please think, how can a religion that claims its god is the only true god to get along well with other religions? So it is impossible to achieve religious fusion. The only possibility of religious unification lies in scientific antitheism, because antitheism represents truth itself, what it reflects is the objective reality, rather than a god that could be never improved. What’s more, conflict of antitheism with religions is weaker than conflict between religions. Mao Zedong once dealt a lot for propaganda of antitheism in China, and had achieved great effect, but with pass away of Mao Zedong, promotion of the work is weakened greatly.
The antitheism’s unification of religions will be a long and difficult process, even longer than ethic fusion, because people’s religious belief is a kind of spiritual need. People need spiritual solace, and are willing to believe even if they are clear that nothing exists (this is because of self-deceiving nature of mankind), what’s more, such belief has not any false content.
This improves that when antitheism could unify all religions, and previous religions will all perish, but after many years of compulsory promotion of antitheism, people do need a kind of religion to comfort their spirit, the greatly unified society could consider to promote a religion of the whole mankind to meet people’s spiritual requirement. Meanwhile, the greatly unified society could also use this religion for the whole mankind to integrate the greatly unified society, cohere mankind’s feelings and unify moral value of the whole world.
II. Relevant Political Issues
The most important specific representation of maximum value principle in political aspect is democracy principle. According to this principle, not any individual or group could represent the whole mankind; of all mankind, any individual is a just a member, no matter his profile is high or low, where he comes from, which times he is born to, of what age and gender. Anyone is equal, and should be entitled to freedom. Everyone should have basic human rights, including the right to pursue happiness and enjoyment, and right to protect justice. All these rights shouldn’t be deprived.
Democracy principle specially emphasizes that the greatly unified society must endow equal political rights to every citizen. On selection of major leaders of world regime, raise and promotion of significant policies of world regime, every citizen in the world will be entitled to express his opinion, and to vote or be voted through equal and reasonable procedures. Whether democracy principle could by thoroughly implemented and people’s democracy won’t be deprived by dictators will be determined by rationality of political system to a great extent.
According to experience of social governance in national society, if people transfer too many political rights to hierarchs, they might lose control of hierarchs, so that to lead to autarchy in the greatly unified society. If this is the situation, people will lose democracy, and master will become slave in front of dictator. To prevent autarchy, ensure hierarchs act according to people’s will, and ensure orderly power shift, to use power to restrain power is very necessary.
Democratic political theory today is generally comes from Montesquieu’s thought of separation of powers. He thought that national power could be divided as legislation right, administration right and jurisdiction right, and also thought that to prevent abuse of power, we must use power to restrict power.
In Montesquieu’s opinion, abuse of power is common, even in democratic nation, of which the government is selected by people, if rights are too much centralized, and are beyond the scope that could be controlled by people, rights from people will turn to dictatorship’s tools, and various malpractices in political area, such as corruption and power politics will be inevitable. To avoid dictatorship, national powers must be separated, that is to endow legislation right, administration right and jurisdiction right to different national organizations, and regulate in laws that these three powers will restrict each other and keep balanced.
Montesquieu’s theory is called “separation of three powers”. Practice has improved that such separation of powers and power balance are effective. I think the separation of political powers adopted in national society, as well as power balance theory are also applicable to the greatly unified society.
It should be specially emphasized here that the greatly unified society must be a legal society, everything must be transacted following laws, no body is allowed to breach laws, and anyone that breaches laws must be punished by laws.
Legal society is associated with power balance. According to human nature, when someone’s power has no restriction, his desire will expand unlimitedly and will do as he wants, laws will become a piece of waste paper in front of him. If world regime’s powers are not balanced, the greatly unified society can’t be ensured to be a legal society, tenets of the greatly unified society can’t be achieved in a non-legal environment, and most important principles will be easily breached.
In view of overall target of human society, the greatly unified society is much significant than national society. Original intention and the most important target of the greatly unified society is to save mankind from extinction, which is more important than anything else, so tenet and important principles of the great unified society are not allowed to be breached.
As the greatly unified society will last for a long time, laws should not only be perfect, but also fairly stable, what’s particularly important is that there must be a fairly stable world constitution with very strong restriction ability.
As the basic law for the greatly unified society, world constitution will cover many aspects, including both restriction of development of science and technology, issues about political system, economic system and social system, and moral value. Some of these contents could be revised with process of society, and should be revised with change of time and conditions, but some other contents shouldn’t be changed easily, for example, strict restriction of development of science and technology is such content, except fundamental evolution occurs to human race, the principle shouldn’t be revised.
Then how to ensure that specific contents of world constitution not to breach important principles, but could be timely adjusted with change of times, and ensure world constitution have strong global sanction? I think a world constitution similar to national constitution is not enough. For example, nation usually sets a “threshold” for revision of constitution, such as suggested by several parliament members or are agreed by some people, and could determine revision content. But some contents of world constitution in the greatly unified society can’t be revised, and sanction of these contents should be very strong, so simple constitution can’t meet these requirements. To protect the most important principles for the greatly unified society, there should be a “law on protection of constitution” at higher level than constitution.
The so-called law on protection of constitution is raised regarding to the most important principles in constitution. Law on protection of constitution will clearly require that the most important principles in constitution should have much stronger sanction than general principles, and requirement for revision of the most important principles is much higher than requirement for revision of other principles. Protected by law on protection of constitution, sanction of the most important principles in constitution will be very strong, anyone that breaches such principle will be severely punished. Also because of the law on protection of constitution, no one will dare to breach such principles, particularly people that master highest rights.
Meanwhile, the most important principles in constitution will not be revised as common constitution revision. Law on protection of constitution has clearly regulated very high “threshold” for revision of these important principles, so that revision or change of such principles is almost impossible, except human race encounters great change or more awful difficulty.
The greatly unified society will have an army controlled by central government. But as nations have perished, and there is only one highest regime in the world, with disappearance of defense and attack opponents, war will disappear also, army’s functions will change accordingly, and military expense will be far smaller than national society. Functions and features of army could be summarized as follows:
First, maintain world unification. Army is controlled by the central government, it is deterrent force maintaining world unification. Just because of existence of military force, separatists dare not to implement their separation desire. Second, put down rebellion. Common social security should be maintained by police, once social instability evolves into rebellion, and police becomes unable to quench, army should quench the rebellion with its strong power. Third, take part in disaster relief. Army has strict disciplines, when natural disaster or other disaster occurs, the force that is easiest to be organized and mobilized, and with the strongest battle effectiveness is the army. To take part in disaster relief will be an important responsibility of army. Fourth, counter invasion of ET, asteroid impacts on earth and other threats from universe. Though possibility of threats from universe is very low, the damage will be serious once such threats occur, and military force should shoulder the holy responsibility to protect the globe.
III. On Economic Issues
In economic aspect, the greatly unified society is different from national society at least in two aspects: the first is different economic operation environment. For example, economic development has greatly benefited from scientific and technological innovation, while the greatly unified society will restrict development of science and technology strictly; different nations adopt different economic systems and policies, and economic development levels of the nations are quite different also, while the greatly unified society will take full account of the whole world, and adopt harmonious and uniform economic operation mode under management of the world regime. The second is different economic operation target. In national society, every nation will try to maintain sustainable, stable, healthy and rapid economic growth, so that the nation will not be eliminated in fierce international competition. In the greatly unified society, as there are no confrontation and competition among nations, economy needn't to grow very fast, the emphasis is to realize common prosperity and bring common happiness to the whole mankind.
So we can forecast economic issues of the greatly unified society as follows:
First, the greatly unified society is a common prosperous society.
Economic development in national society is very unbalanced, and gap between the rich and the poor is wider and wider, of which the main reasons lie in following aspects: the first is historic reasons. Some nations have been in primitive closed state, when the world entered industrialization times, these nations still kept in uncivilized environment. These nations have long been enslaved by colonialism, and have lost economic autonomy, with economic structure seriously distorted. So there are gaps between nations even at the starting line.
Second, different nations adopt different economic policies. Degrees of policy makers are very important to economic development. Generally speaking, the poorer the country, the less talents are there, so the degree of policy is lower, while the richer the nation is, the higher the education level will be, and the more talents are there, so the degree of policy is higher also, this is an important reason for why the gap between the rich and the poor is wider and wider.
The third is different national characteristic. Different nationalities have different cultural traditions, different living habits and different moral values. Some nationalities are very endurable of hardship, and are diligent and good at developing economy, while other nationalities are quite lazy, can't endure hardship, and are not good at developing economy. Results for nationalities that are quite different will certainly be very different in aspect of economic development.
The fourth is uneven popularity of science and technology. Science and technology have become the major impetus for development. Efficiency of the same worker will be hundreds of times different between using modern operation measure and primitive manual operation.
Developed countries have widely applied various advanced technological production means, and have been strengthening their R&D ability continuously, while underdeveloped countries are still using primitive production and farming methods, not even to say scientific R&D ability, so it's certain that the gap with developed countries will be wider and wider.
Use of science and technology also intensified the unbalance of wealth distribution. Rapid development of science and technology, as well as the application in production, has greatly strengthened enterprise's ability to create wealth, boss and the management are certain major beneficiaries, while employees' incomes will be quite varied. So innovation and application of science and technology are also major causes for wide gap between individual wealth.
The greatly unified society will change basic features of national society fundamentally: first, to help poor areas to develop will be an important work of world regime. The whole world will be in jurisdiction of the world regime, so there will be only problem of balanced development, but no intention to favor any area. It won't look on poor areas indifferently, but will attach great importance to helping these areas. What's more, world regime controls global resources, and is completely capable to help these areas in various ways, so that to narrow gap between poor areas and other areas and ensure balanced development of the world.
Second, policy of the greatly unified society is uniform, which means that the policy will be made by the same department, so actual situations of different regions will all be considered when the highest decision making department formulates economic development policies and allocate various resources reasonably, keeping balanced development of the world as the base of all economic works, which will avoid widening gap between the rich and the poor inevitably resulted by independent development of different countries in national society.
Third, the greatly unified society will promote fusion of nationalities, religions and regions. There will be only one notion--“mankind” for future people. To promote fusion of the world, the greatly unified society will promote a series of moral values and living habits that are favorable to global uniform governance and development, then the whole mankind will share same internal quality, which is also an important factor for balanced development of the world.
Fourth, while restricting development of science and technology, the greatly unified society will collect and check technologies that are safe and mature at present, and then decide which to use and popularize, with deepening of such promotion, most areas of the world will use technologies at generally same level, difference of application of science and technology will be reduced to the lowest degree, so productivity of different regions will tend to develop to the same level, which is the most important factor for balanced development of the greatly unified society, and this factor will greatly narrow gaps among personal wealth.
To sum up, various basic features of the greatly unified society will accelerate balancing of wealth distribution. With continuous development of the greatly unified society, wealth distribution in the society will tend to be even, so the greatly unified society will be a common prosperous society.
Common prosperous society is very favorable for people to enjoy happiness, because happiness occurs in comparison. In a society with wide gap between the rich and the poor, few rich people and many poor ones will coexist, so many people can't have happiness in comparison of happiness. What's more, in a society with wide gap between the rich and the poor, various crimes will arise, in a society with frequent crimes people can't feel safety, not even to say happiness.
Second, in the greatly unified society, economy will develop steadily.
In national society, application degree of scientific and technological fruits is very different in different nations. Such difference will be brought to the greatly unified society to a great extent. As development of science and technology is restricted, in aspect of economy, the ideal result is to popularize technologies that are allowed to be used everywhere in the world, if we are really able to do so, then these scientific and technological fruits will be fully used, this is also a major target of economic development of the world regime.
In process to attain this target, economic development will show features as follows: the first is to popularize technologies that are allowed to be used everywhere in the world, and the second is to simply enlarge production scale at present level of science and technology.
But economic development is also restricted by market demands. As development of science and technology will be restricted, no new technology will appear, if present scientific and technological fruits are popularized worldwide, production scale will be enormous, and such enormous production scale will far exceed people's demands for common products. What's more, the greatly unified society will advocate frugality, luxury will not be encouraged, so one product could be used for a long while, and speed of mankind's consumption of products will be greatly reduced.
What's more, as the world regime will definitely control world population, global population will tend to be stable, so most people will be able to get what they hope to get because of the stable population, and scale of demands on global market will tend to be stable, global economy will tend to be stable also. Such stability of economy will be realized under the precondition of common well-being of the whole mankind and people's demands could be fully satisfied, rather than economic stagnation caused by insufficient production.
IV. On Social Issues
The writer hereby sets general target of the greatly unified society as “peaceful and friendly society”, and advocates “medium payment, medium harvest, frugal living, some saving” as a kind of living concept of the greatly unified society. Reason for such design is that such target is most favorable for social stability, and most favorable for the whole mankind to have common happiness. Political, economic and cultural measures, as well as policies and measures in various social aspects are all designed for this target.
Peaceful and friendly society can’t be realized in national society, because realization of national interests needs protection of national strength, so every nation will try to raise its national strength, ask its army to be brave and insuperable, and require its enterprises to innovate and be good at competition. Because of all these factors, moral values advocated by national society and political, economic, cultural and social policies adopted by national society must be competitive and adventurous. So the national society, the human world after industrial revolution in particular, is full of competition, adventure and confrontation, because of such competition, adventure and confrontation, it’s impossible for peaceful and friendly social atmosphere to form.
The greatly unified society will completely reverse this situation. Because of perishment of nations, and fusion of nationalities and religions, and after disappearance of such preconditions as national, ethical and religious confrontation, restriction of development of science and technology will also require restriction of fierce competition, over risk and acute confrontation be restricted. With disappearance of the toughest barrier as national, ethic and religious confrontation, it will not be difficult to realize the general development target—to build a peaceful and friendly society.
When above targets are realized, a picture as follows will open in front of us:
In a peaceful society, people yearn for quite and peaceful life. People's living pressures will not be heavy as today, with application of science and technology that are safe and mature at present, medium efforts will exchange for medium harvest. Though people will have medium harvest, they prefer frugal life, so families will have some surplus, and people will live safely and surely.
Meanwhile, people will become very friendly, people will often help others, no matter they are neighbors, colleges, classmates, friends, or strangers. Friendly behaviors are everywhere, though people live frugally, they are generous when facing needy people, regardless of personal gain or loss. Frugality is not miserliness, but a kind of value and living style that is commonly considered as noble.
People are quite indifferent to wealth and position, and will not be rapturous at what they gain, or be deeply grave at what they lose. People will make best of things, live a normal living, try to have more moral harvest, be different towards interests, seek for stable living, harmonious relationship in families and with neighbors, be far away from competition and risks. In such society, war and crime will be rarely occur, and global resource regeneration will be balanced with mankind’s consumption.
Now, we will discuss several questions as follows: firstly, common and good social welfare will be a basic feature of the greatly unified society, the purpose is to increase people’s sense of safety in living, and weaken social competition. Good social welfare and sound social safety system need material base. In the greatly unified society, safe and mature scientific and technological fruits will be promoted and applied widely, such promotion and application will not only narrower the gap between the rich and the poor, but the material wealth thus created will be completely enough to bring people living conditions even better than the developed countries at present, and this is the reliable material guarantee for establishment of social welfare and social safety system of the greatly unified society.
Secondly, the greatly unified society will advocate middle level education. Higher education, particularly higher education that involves natural sciences, shouldn't be advocated, but also should be strictly restricted within certain people, because the more people to learn natural sciences, the more ones that will master natural scientific knowledge, and the more people that have keys to sciences, so restriction of development of science and technology will be more difficult.
Thirdly, the greatly unified society will attach great importance to population control. The standard is to keep balance between mankind's consumption of resources with global resource regeneration ability. With restriction of development of science and technology, people will not gain alternative resources by science or technology, to live permanently on earth, people must keep balance between resource consumption and resource regeneration, of which the most important factor is population, because the larger the population is, the more resource consumption there will be.
V. Morality and Value
In the greatly unified society, the whole mankind is included in a unified world, so the greatly unified society will need a uniform morality system. People could fuse together only under uniform moral and value system. What's more, features of the greatly unified society also requires a uniform moral and value system that suits the greatly unified society in general. Such uniform moral and value system is different from that of the national society in many aspects, at least the emphases of many aspects of moralities and values are different.
The writer puts forward a series of assumptions of moralities and values of the greatly unified society. What needs to be clarified is that all these assumptions of moralities and values are standards that people are required to meet according to features of the greatly unified society. Some commonly recognized good and evil standards, such as no killing, no stealing and no adultery, are not elaborated here, because these basic moral requirements are self-evident, and need no special emphasis. I think there are eight moral values that must be emphasized in the greatly unified society—peace, friendliness, frugality, diligence, tolerance, mercy, credit and integrity .
Peace refers to quietness, calm, harmony and generosity. Do not be rapturous at gain, or deeply grave at lose. Face everything peacefully, get along with others harmoniously, be generous always, seek for medium payment and medium harvest, do not rack one's brain in scheming for private interests, and face the whole life peacefully and calmly.
Friendliness refers to sincere friendly behavior and the attitude to get along well with others. If there is some difference between politeness and friendliness, then the difference is that politeness might contain some fake content, while friendliness is sincere; politeness may contain some purpose for leaving good impression to others, while friendliness is from one's heart.
Frugality means thrift and simplicity. Frugality is opposite to waste and luxury. No matter individual expense, family management and social governance, frugality will always be a principle. Be frugal everywhere possible, and try to save money everywhere possible. Do not eliminate any product that could continue to be used, and this is principle of frugality.
Diligence is to be hardworking, and replace harvest with labor. Diligence seems to be conflict with peace and frugality, but it is actually not, what peace and frugality pursue is to exchange medium harvest with medium payment, which means that there should be payment first, then comes harvest, and the payment needs spirit of diligence. Diligence here doesn't mean ergasiomania-type hard work, but it emphases that part to exchange harvest with payment, and goes against reaping where one has not sown.
Tolerance refers to lenience, forgiveness, magnanimity and acceptance. It’s opposite to rancor and narrow-mind. It asks people to tolerate everything with broad mind, to forget rancor, forgive enemy, stop retaliation, and return good for evil. It asks people not to care others’ irreverence, but see people’s advantages, and get along well with others. Tolerance also requires people to be tolerant towards everything, do not resort to arms for trivial. Without tolerance, people can’t get along well with others, or build a harmonious and peaceful society.
Mercy means kindheartedness, goodness and lenity. Mercy is bestowal to others, is to give what previously belongs to you to others willingly. Such bestowal is sincere care, generous giving, friendly greeting and tolerant forgiveness.
Credit refers to honesty, sincerity and fame. It represents sincere communication between people and real products provided by enterprises, as well as promises kept by governments.
Integrity asks people to have sense of justice, and to be responsible and brave to maintain social justice.