Chapter III External Threat

External threat, i.e. natural threat, signifies all kinds of other factors except human being causes, which are likely to endanger the survival of human being. External and internal factors endangering the survival of human being constitute together the whole factors endangering the survival of human being.

All external threats influencing greatly the survival of human being are attempted to be selected here, especially those influencing the overall survival of human being. And the factors really threatening the overall survival of human being are further selected through the in-depth study and analysis of factors, which are possible to threaten the survival of human being.  


Section I Threat on Universe

Standing on the earth, seeing towering mountains, mighty rivers and magnificent sea, we often exclaim over the greatness of the earth. While actually in universe, the earth is a small member of the star system of sun, containing only 340 thousandth of solar system and bounded completely by the sun.

In vast universe, the sun plays an even smaller role comparing with that of the earth in solar system. As a star system, the sun shares only one twentieth billion of the Milky Way and the Milky Way contains less than one thirtieth billion of the universes. So it’s not excessive to say that the sun is only a drop of water or a sand of mountain in the universe.

For threat of universe on human being, firstly it should be considered integrate with the earth, because human being is impossible to survive with the earth in major problems; Then the earth should be considered integrate with the sun, because the earth is bounded by the sun, thus if the sun was in major problems, the ecosystem of the earth would be completely destroyed and human being can’t survive, neither; Finally, the solar system should be considered as a point, because it’s just a small point in the universe.

I. History of gravity and star

There is a force of nature is not subject to any blocking objects, without any distance limitations, and this is the gravity between the substances.

People standing on the Earth have weight, that is the Earth's gravitational force on the people, the size of gravity equal to the weight of people; the Moon around the Earth's rotation, not to escape from the Earth because the Earth due to gravity on the moon; the same, the earth around the sun is the Sun on the Earth there is gravity; operation of the sun around the galaxy center, but also because the Milky Way there is gravity on the sun.

Newtonian gravity is the first observation of Apple fell from the tree, but it is not toward the sky and found. In their daily lives, many natural phenomena and gravitation, and the ocean ebb and flow, the tidal effect is due to the moon and the sun on the sea due to the gravity. Sun on the Earth's gravitational effect on Earth is not only one side of the face of the sun, away from the sun by the side of the role of solar gravity. Tens of thousands of light years away far apart the two planets also exists between the gravitational force.

In addition there are three types of gravitational force outside nature, that is, the electromagnetic force and the strong nuclear and weak internal force. In four of the most powerful forces of nature is a powerful force, but acting on it within the scope of the atomic nucleus. The second force is a powerful electromagnetic force, it is only one per cent of strength, but the scope of the role of the electromagnetic force is far more than power, it is the role of the electromagnetic force so that the nucleus can not be in touch with each other, so power will not be released. Also, the neutron can not be separated from the release of strong and weak force allows for the neutron proton decay, is essential for the release of strong helper. Well, gravity is the weakest force in nature, as opposed to the electromagnetic force of atoms in a few quadrillion times weaker, the relative strength is also much weaker, but it is not subject to any distance limitations with the object block, everywhere, no do not have, so it will set into a very weak countless powerful, and eventually defeating the other, and the rule of our universe.

The use of the star is a planet of light and heat from nuclear energy, nuclear energy is generated because when the planet is large enough, it is a huge gravitational force so that the core of the site will be able to continuously increase the temperature until the temperature reaches 10 million degrees Celsius. In the meantime, the main elements of the composition of the star will have a severe hydrogen nuclei of the movement, so that their nuclei can eventually break through the electromagnetic force between the exclusion, direct collision occurred, resulting in nuclear fusion will be a strong release.

Nuclear fusion of hydrogen is combined with four hydrogen atoms into a helium atom in the process of nuclear synthesis in the loss of 0.7% to the quality, this is a strong nucleus with the release of the price, and it is that very little loss of quality can have a tremendous energy.

Medium sun as we do big stars, and its fusion with two, one is the fusion of hydrogen, helium fusion time.

Issued in the light and heat of fusion of hydrogen at the same time, it generates a continual deposition of helium in the core of the star, when a large number of hydrogen fusion to helium, the star's hydrogen core has been depleted, leaving behind mainly helium atom, However, outside the core hydrogen burning continues, the two parts of the core role of power simultaneously, is a star's gravity, another is the core of the external hydrogen fusion pressure resulting from the tremendous expansion. When the two forces combined efforts can make the temperature of the core parts of hundreds of millions of degrees, the helium nuclei of the fierce campaign will also be able to break their shackles of electromagnetic force to reach each other directly collided, resulting in fusion of helium to helium nuclei in a strong release.

Helium burning is the fusion of helium to the process of oxygen and carbon, the energy released as a result of its hydrogen fusion energy than larger, at this time within the star lit up like a star again, as the star of this within their gave tremendous power to the external out of top stars, making the diameter of the planet suddenly more than 100 times larger, and the size of the expansion of more than one million times. Although the new planet is huge, but because it's surface temperature is lower than the original star of surface temperature, red is why they are called red giants.

Helium fusion duration shorter than the fusion of hydrogen, helium fusion of the late star to enter an unstable state, it will be the external material was thrown out of some, but mainly composed of carbon and oxygen from the core will collapse into a site of high density, the white dwarf temperature is also high.

White dwarf star is dead, although the high temperature, but this is the original star left over from the heat, it can not happen again internal thermonuclear reaction, and through the slowly cooling of ten billions of years, and the final will be a cold planet. According to human standards, white dwarf material is priceless, because the material was crystalline internal structure, the same structure as diamond, but this great diamond we can hardly be.

Because the hydrogen fusion together to form other stable and durable, so, astronomy will be the star of the hydrogen fusion stage stars known as the star of the main sequence stage.

Stars in the main sequence star will stay with the stellar mass increases rapidly become smaller, the quality of the sun such stars in the main sequence stars stay for 100 million years, but 0.3 times the mass of one solar mass star will burn on trillions of years, and the quality is 5 times the solar mass stars can only burn a few million years. This is because the greater the quality of the star, the greater the gravitational force, will lead to strong gravitational speed up its internal fusion, when the quality of big stars to a certain extent, will be extremely fierce fusion is impossible to stabilize the star and thus lead to the overall stellar explosion, the big stars can not be unlimited. So far, we have observed is the biggest star HD93250 stars, it is about the quality of the 120 times the solar mass.

The quality of the star can not be too small, the smallest star quality is generally not less than 8% of the sun. Because of its gravity is too small planet will not be able to ignite the hydrogen atoms inside, nuclear fusion can not occur, the issue of light and heat can not, so can not be called a star.

To a large extent, the final fate of the star is decided by the quality of the star. 0.7 times smaller than a solar mass star, since gravity is not sufficient, and only the combustion of hydrogen, helium will never be lit. 0.7-8 times the mass of a star the sun, its fate with the sun, like the quality in this interval, the small number of stars burning hydrogen first, followed by burning helium, the stars will burn some carbon, in the completion of these combustion after quietly evolved into white dwarfs.

A 8-10 times greater than the quality of the sun will be the star of his death is extremely violent explosion, as the star of more than 8-10 times the solar mass, the huge gravitational End will star in the combustion of hydrogen, helium and carbon, it will continue to lit other elements, they were oxygen, neon, silicon, iron, each time re-ignited a new element, and its stellar internal energy will produce a larger star, which will be the external layers of the star of a top-out, and finally to make star to reach 10 billion kilometers in diameter. When the ignition process of the final turn, when iron, iron is not only the nuclear burning energy release, but to absorb the energy, a sudden loss of energy within the star of the support, therefore, the outcome of catastrophic happened, up to 10 billion kilometers in diameter star will suddenly collapse to the center to form a very intense explosion, it was thrown out of the material will be hundreds of billions of kilometers away, such as supernova explosions erupted.

Supernova eruption, the star of the core parts of the compression will be fierce, so all the electronic ballast into protons, because of e-with negative charge, positively charged protons, when the electronic ballast into the proton, the positive and negative charge offset into in son, resulting in an extremely dense neutron star, neutron star's density can reach 100 million tons per cubic centimeter on.

Strong magnetic field neutron star than the Earth's magnetic field 108-1015 times strong, and spin very fast, up to several hundred per second to be able to launch two strong magnetic fields of the electromagnetic (optical). As the neutron star's magnetic axis and rotation axis are inconsistent, when the rotation of electromagnetic waves emitted by it are very much lap to regularly fire in space, this neutron star is a beacon effect. Effect of neutron stars can be a beacon of direction in the universe, the universe we launched multiple aircraft, with alien information is brought to the location of the neutron star system instructions.

The quality of a larger star, when the explosion of his death, the collapse of heavy nuclei would have crushed to form a more dense celestial bodies, the extent of its dense so that light can not escape its gravity, which is a black hole. Black hole exists in the universe has been confirmed.

II. Black holes swallow

If we stand on the earth and throw an object to the sky, at last the object will drop back to the earth. This is because of the gravity of the earth to the object. If there is no gravity on the earth, this object will be thrown out along the direction toward the space and never return. However, even if there is gravity on the earth, when the object is out to the sky in a certain speed, it will get rid of the earth's gravity, keep forward and never returns. Such kind of speed getting rid of the gravity of planet is known as the escape velocity. The escape velocity on the earth is 11.2 kilometers per second, that is to say, if we stand on the surface of the earth and throw an object to the space in a speed of 11.2 kilometers per second, this object will not return to the earth, but fly to the space. The escape velocity on different planet surface is not the same, for example, the sun's surface escape velocity is 617 kilometers per second and that on lunar surface is 2.38 kilometers per second. The reason why the escape velocity on sun surface is much greater than on earth surface is of the sun is much greater than the earth; On the other hand, the escape velocity on moon surface is smaller. It’s because the gravity of the moon is smaller than that on the earth.

The speed of light is the fastest speed in the natural world, 300,000 kilometers per second. When a planet's gravity is extremely large, the surface escape speed of the speed of light when this is the black hole, and it demonstrates that even light can not be great from a way out of gravity. If the radius of the Earth's compressed into a ball of 1 cm is the black hole, so that the size of smaller than the table tennis.

There are a lot of black holes in the universe. Is our solar system likely to fall into the black hole? If the solar system fell into the black hole, it would be undoubtedly the end of human being.

The largest black hole in Milky Way is that in galactic center. First of all, let us analyze the threat of the black hole for us. We know that the sun needs 2.5 billion years to move around the galactic center. The sun has formed for 5 billion years, so it should be running around the galaxy center for 20 rounds and today it seems that there was no indication showing that the operation of the solar system is not normal. The black wall of the galactic center swallowed up only the stars in the scope of galactic center. If the other stars want to be swallowed up by this black hole, at least they should enter the scope of galactic center. The location of the solar system in the Milky Way is more distant from the lateral silver heart, galactic center from a distance of 27,000 light-years, around the galactic center in the process of operation; they do not greatly change their running track, in ten billions of years. The sun can not be run within the scope of Bank of heart. To significantly change the running track of the sun unless the sun be a star with considerable impact, and to experience this kind of impact, to the devastating human disaster is not the time to swallow the black hole, but was hit in the sun moment occurs.

From another angle we can see that the sun could not have been before the death of a black hole swallowed silver heart. There are 150 million years history of the universe, the Milky Way formed roughly 140 million years, galactic center a black hole is about the quality of the 2.6 million solar mass, and the Milky Way there are about 200 billion times the sun's mass, which shows that galactic center with the 14 billion black hole years engulfed the stars, only 8 of the quality of one ten thousandth of the Milky Way, if this rate of phagocytes also offer the entire Milky Way in trillions of years, and the sun on the main sequence stars of the time only 50 million years, so do not have silver hearts are worried about a black hole swallowed.

So, in addition to the heart of a black hole outside the Bank whether or not there will be another black hole swallowed the sun does? Black holes are most likely to occur outside of the heart in addition to silver in the center of globular clusters may also have a big black hole. As a globular cluster, tens of thousands to millions of stars concentrated in a small region, the center of it is very likely there will be a larger black hole, of course, such a black hole with the center of the Milky Way black hole certainly small compared to more than up to the sun but the quality of hundreds or thousands of solar masses. At present, astronomers have discovered through the observation of some globular clusters have X-ray Center, which is the globular cluster center there is evidence of a black hole.

Milky Way has about 500 globular clusters, which are very far away from us, we can see the brightest of the globular cluster Centauri is ω, it is about one million stars, 16,000 light-years away from us. The nearest is the globular cluster M4, about 100,000 stars, from our distance of 7200 light years, it is a very safe distance.

In addition to the black and galactic center of globular cluster black hole, but also there are many big stars by the independent formation of a black hole of death, in the astronomers observing the universe, the same found in such a black hole. However, at this time we have discovered black holes may be strong X-ray sources, they, without exception; we are very far away from. Which was confirmed that Cygnus X-1 is a distance we are close to the black hole, from the solar system about 10,000 light-years, but also need to be further confirmed from the black hole we have recently located in Sagittarius, it V4641SGR and numbered the stars of a general group into a binary star system about 1,600 light years from our solar system. So, whether it is 10,000 light-years or 1,600 light years distance is far enough and could not affect the safety of the solar system.

In fact, a big black hole of a medium-sized star of the solar system compared to the threat of difference is not large, at best, the scope of the black hole a little larger than a mortal threat, but because of the distance between stars is huge in relation to this area of the planet the distance between almost negligible. At the same time, in the universe, black holes can form a big star is very small, about 10,000 stars in the can are likely to form a black hole, which also shows that the probability of a black hole sun hit the solar encounter only the probability of a star impact one ten thousandth.

III. Impact of stars and planets and independent supernova explosion

 (1) Impact of stars and independent planets

Today's universe is the world of stars. The stars occupy a large scale in the universe, and are also real and visible. The sun is a star and is what we human being relies on to survive. There are hundreds of millions of stars in Milky Way. Is the sun likely to collide with one of them or be disturbed seriously, so as to destroy the whole ecology of the earth and result in the extinction of the human being?

Firstly, let us analyze the regional environment in which the solar system locates. The sun is outside the Milky Way and the density of the star outside the Milky Way is much less than that in the central region of galactic center and aerosphere. The nearest star to the solar system is Centauri α star, which is a triple star, i.e. the star system composed by 3 stars. In Centauri α star, the Centauri αC star is nearest to us, with a distance of 4.25 light-years, so it’s also known as the next star. The stars a little further away from us are Barnard star 5.96 light years away and the Wolf 359 7.8 light-years away from us. Other stars are all from more than 8 light years away and there are only 7 star systems within the distance of 10 light years.

According to our observations, the Centauri α star is closer to us with a little angle. In many yeas, it will reach the minimum distance of 3 light years with us, and then turn away.

How much is the possibility of collision of stars? Such a group of image data could be used for description: If the sun with the diameter of 1.392 million kilometers reduced to the small sand with the diameter of 1 mm, the nearest star would be 29.2 kilometers away from us and the average distance around the star is 52 kilometers, so their chance of collision is very small.

More importantly, these “small sands” distributed sparsely in the huge three-dimensional space are not unregulated and flying all around. Actually they are moving slowly and with orders. For example, for the moving of the sun, if narrowed by the above-mentioned image distance, the “small sand” moves only 4.92 meters each year and all the stars are, without exception, in its own orbit around the galactic center operation, and they respect each other, and to comply with the law. In the universe, the more the quality of large celestial body’s stronger laws, the smaller the possibility of external disturbances, a star-class celestial body, in addition to gravity galactic center around it, the general strength of it is not possible to change its orbit. Therefore, like the sun in the celestial light that galaxies outside the stars, the stars of the collision to take place or serious disturbance of each other may be too small, a few will not hundred billon years.

In the universe there are some planet, they are not luminous or fever, do not belong to the stars, but they do not belong to any star system, planets are not common, they only exist because of the formation of the first volume is too small, so that can not be ignited by the gravitational center of the hydrogen atoms, so can only become an independent system running around the center of galaxies, we might as well call them as an independent planet. In that case, they may be related to the occurrence of the sun hit it or each other disturbances?

Because in the universe, the natural formation of smaller objects than large, and therefore, independent of the number of planets than stars in the solar system around the space are likely to have such a planet, but it was not found. However, even so, the number will be few and far between. With above-mentioned figure of speech, its danger of collision or serious disturbances of the sun is like more tiny “sands” moving slowly around the distance of dozens of kilometers.

Moreover, the independent planets and stars, as there is a law of its operation, and they affected by the gravitational center of the Milky Way by rule, around the silver and orderly functioning of the heart, each of which has its own orbit each other with minimal impact, making the distribution of these sparse several "small sand" on the hit probability of more of the smaller.

In fact, even if the merger occurred in the two galaxies, even if the center of the star the most intensive regional meeting each other the opportunity to have a small impact on the small, but its probability of one hundredth of billion. Because of the relative size of the star, the distance between stars is too great.

Must be asked, since the collision of celestial bodies may be so small, why we can observe celestial collision situation?

Collision or mutual interfere of celestial bodies occurs generally in three circumstances: firstly, in the central region of galaxies; Secondly, in the central cluster region; thirdly, among the companion stars. The center of any galaxy with a star are the most material-intensive region, which depends primarily on the state of intensive its innate factors that, in the initial formation of galaxies in the process of gradually forming a center of gravity, the gravitational the center of gravity will inevitably make use of its material to absorb as much as possible, to become the center of galaxies. At the same time, after the galaxy formation, the role of gravity, a little close to the central region of the material and celestial bodies also tends to be concentrated to the center. However, the celestial bodies to focus on the speed of the galaxy’s center are very slow, so for us the periphery of the solar system stars, within a few of hundred billion years, there is no possibility that such a problem.

Clusters are also similar, in the process of galaxy formation, galaxies in the local area a number of small relatively dense material, they formed a very dense cluster of stars, tens of thousands or millions of stars gathered in a small space. And the clusters are bound to have its own center, which is a cluster of stars and matter in more areas, where the star will be the opportunity to impact much greater. Fortunately, the solar system with any one of our clusters is far away from each other, of course, they will not join the crowded ranks.

In the universe there are many binary star systems are triple or stars, that is, two stars or three stars in close proximity, and intertwined. In such a system, as a result of gravitational interaction, any of its companion stars will be a great influence on any star to a large extent also the impact of its companion star, therefore, such a companion star system is often unstable, we obviously do not belong to the solar system such a star system.

 (2) Supernova explosion

Supernova is the star the world's known explosion of the most violent explosion of the phenomenon, which allows the brightness of stars in a very short period of time to increase ten millions, or even hundreds of millions of times the speed of stellar material thrown out on up to 10,000 kilometers per second, its strong radiation can strongly influence the region. To talk about the threat of the universe, the threat of the explosion  of supernovae to distant planets over the star and an independent impact and disturbance, it is far more than a black hole swallowed, the explosion  of supernova should merit our attention is the real threat to the universe.

Two types of supernovae, that is-I and-II supernova supernovae. -I supernova is a dense near the explosion  of the outcome of binary evolution, the principle is this: If a binary system of two stars very near by, and the two stars of the quality of medium-large, in which a large number of stars will be pre - as a dense white dwarf evolution, the other stars are still burning, and the star is a gas planet, it is mobile, therefore, white dwarfs will make use of its companion star heart of gravitational accretion of material, the accretion of material around the white dwarf Shell will form a layer of hydrogen, when hydrogen shell quality after a certain extent, by the white dwarf gravitational effect, the temperature will reach a very high, when the temperature reaches 10 million degrees, the hydrogen nuclei was ignited, and the nuclear fusion of hydrogen occurred. If the white dwarf companion accretion of material to achieve more than enough, in the hydrogen fusion will occur after the completion of fusion of helium, helium-carbon fusion occurred after the completion of fusion. However, the main components of the white dwarf itself is carbon, then carbon fusion ignition will not be at the periphery, but extremely dense white dwarf from the center of the first ignited, and the fusion of carbon will speed pass by the center to the periphery, by the formation of a huge explosion, deep-fried pieces of white material, together with its peripherals will be thrown violently in space.

Type II supernova is a stellar evolution to the late violent explosion occurred, which have been introduced before.

By estimation, in every 25 to 75 years, the Milky Way is likely to supernova explosion, but we have observed little. This is because the solar system locates on the surface of Silver Road and the observations are often blocked by other stars or other interstellar matters.

Threat of supernova explosion for human being is mainly in two aspects. On the one hand, the explosion of the early days of its thermal radiation will increase the Earth's temperature, resulting in the destruction of the Earth's ecological balance. So far, observation of human beings in the Milky Way to the explosion of seven supernovae, they are far away from us, the most recent supernova in 1006, 4200 light years away from us, so there was no form for us in any way. However, the close-up of the supernova is not this the result of the explosion, according to the calculation, if the distance from our recent stars of the location of α Centauri supernova eruption, in about one month over the Earth will be like an additional one-sixth the size of The sun, the earth's average temperature will rise four or five degrees.

On the other hand are the γ-ray radiation and other harmful radiation. It’s more serious than thermal radiation, because the extremely strong γ-ray and other harmful rays of radiation exploded by supernova can be life-threatening in large scale. Then, according to the present the most authoritative studies have shown that only 25 light years away from Earth with the explosion  of the supernova in order to achieve full weaken the ozone layer, so that ultraviolet light reach the surface of the double dose, which seriously affect the survival of human being .

To sum up, we must beware of supernovae in the range of 25 light-years. In fact the basis of astronomical observations, which is within the scope of the explosion, did not produce the conditions of supernova stars. Because supernovae produce the conditions for the explosion it is clear that supernovae of type I must be a close proximity of the middle-big stars, for Type II supernovae must be the quality of more than 8 times the solar mass stars. This is the star at close range can easily be found, but we did not do near the star.

However, the solar system today, the location of the galaxy in which although not in a nearby supernova may occur, but the sun is not static, it is in the speed of 220 kilometers per second around the galactic center operation, but also in the vicinity of the sun orbits the star is also in accordance with a certain operation of law, perhaps after too long we will catch up with one in 25 light years, the explosion of the supernova. However, according to scientists, the 100 light-years away from the scope of our average will be 7.5 billion years the explosion  of a supernova, this is estimated that 25 light years away from us within the scope of every 480 million years before the explosion  of a possible supernova. Since the formation of our sun has only 50 million years, and 50 million years and then turned into a red giant, mankind can not survive in this, therefore, that such an incident may threaten our very small.

In fact, if we really catch up with such a thing has nothing to fear, because, before the explosion of supernova obvious signs, such signs can at least provide us with more than 100 million years of preparation. Then, in the vicinity of the observed supernova may break out, we are fully capable of taking a series of effective preventive measures. Extreme, in order to offset the destruction of the ozone layer, we can come up with the production of a large number of the sky to measure ozone emissions, or to prevent the destruction of the ozone layer of the measures; in order to prevent the strong ultraviolet radiation, we can develop a skin protection against ultraviolet radiation materials, radiation-proof clothing; the strongest γ-ray in the first of more than 20 days, we may even stay in the air-raid shelter construction or radiation does not come out, a few need to work outdoors can be put on spacesuits radiation. If the explosion of supernovae closer, we need to prevent the resulting thermal radiation of the harassment, as the glaciers melt, sea levels will rise, so we had to move out of part of the residents of coastal areas; as a result of floods, hurricanes frequent, as well as the possibility of some epidemics, but also make the necessary precautions should be. In short, we should encounter such a situation is very troublesome, but to human being as a whole can not constitute a threat to survival.

IV. Threat of micro black holes and antimatter planet

Understanding of the universe today is based on quantum mechanics and general relativity based on quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity is only the establishment of a century, therefore, we far from understands the universe reflects the nature of the universe. According to existing theories of the universe, the analysis has not been confirmed that there are two objects, if they really existed, and of the solar system and the possibility of a threat to mankind would be devastating, which is micro-black holes and antimatter planet.

 (1) Threat of micro black holes

According to Big Bang cosmology, the Big Bang at the beginning of the universe, may be tremendous pressure in different regions of the material compressed into a small mass of the black hole, the black hole of only tens of thousands of kilograms of small, there may be a big star so much smaller, It is said that such a black hole for the micro-black hole or black hole primary.

If such a micro-black hole, after the history of the universe 150 million years, these micro-black holes like the situation?

In accordance with the laws of nature, in the absence of rules in the form of objects, quality and size of the smaller number of more objects, on the contrary, the quality and volume of the object the greater the volume the less. Big Bang when the universe formed by micro-black holes should also is the case. Most of the quality of very small micro-black holes, like the Earth or the moon of a larger quality of only a small number of micro-black hole. Well, this micro-black hole would be for us what kind of threat? To answer this question we must first understand the characteristics of the black hole.

Although the black hole even light is off, but very stingy with the black hole is not entirely, black holes have evaporated, and the quality of the smaller black hole the faster the evaporation, the greater the evaporation of black holes more slowly. The quality of a Milky Way black hole evaporation period of 10,100 years (that is, 1 after the 100 0), a solar mass black hole evaporation period in 1065, therefore, such a big black hole evaporation is a very long time, perhaps the universe than the existence of time to long. However, the quality of one billion tons of the black hole evaporation is only 100 million years; a mass of one million tons of black hole evaporation is only 10 years, a mass of 1 ton of black hole evaporation over 10-10 seconds, the evaporation period of less than to the moment.

Taking into account the existence of black holes in the process of how many have swallowed some of the material, therefore, it is generally to the quality of one billion tons for the sector that the quality is lower than the micro-black hole evaporation should have been obliterated, and the quality of higher Micro black holes should exist in the universe, the quality is roughly equivalent to a larger mountain.

Big Bang formed the vast majority of micro-black hole is very small and more than 10 billion tons of the black hole should be very few, therefore, the majority of micro-black hole 150 million years of time have all been basically the evaporative light. And the largest micro-black hole that the reverse is the case, which was slowly evaporated, and they continue to exhaust all their material around, it will make the longer the big black hole, but also the more difficult the bigger the black hole evaporation Therefore, such a black hole if we can arrive at today, the quality of many of its more than 150 million years ago should be even more significant.

The distribution of micro-black whole density and distribution of the universe, the density of the material should be roughly the same, especially as the oldest of the celestial bodies, if still exist today, it should be most concentrated in the central region of galaxies. At the same time, to determine if micro-black hole is correct, the Milky Way is also bound to be such a micro-black hole, but should also focus on the most central region of the Milky Way. Galactic center for focus on the micro-black hole near the far distance from the sun, the sun will not jeopardize the security, but also a part of micro-black holes will be located in other regions of the Milky Way, then, these micro-black holes will not be a danger to our solar system's security?

Let us take the mass of the moon the size of a micro-black hole sun as the impact that micro-black hole should be as large as the quality of the moon is big enough, but the quality of the black hole of the Moon is only 0.1 mm of its size, as a barely recognizable fine sand.

If such a big lunar impact of celestial bodies first the sun will be earth-shattering impact of the spectacular scenes, and then the moon will be swallowed up by the sun. However, the Moon has a quality of a micro-black hole "fine sand" when the sun met the situation is entirely different, so when a small "sand" has a great quality, just a little with a certain speed, its kinetic energy are very great, but "fine sand" in a very small cross-section, into the sun after the resistance will be very small, therefore, it will easily penetrate from the sun and the reverse side and out, to continue into space. Micro black holes will not be evaporation, but the quality of absorbing the sun after some energy radiation, their weight will increase, due to the quality of micro-black whole absorption is limited, then the sun did not seem to like what happens, continue to their combustion.

However, when this "fine sand" when the speed is very slow, in the penetration will be the sun after the sun's gravity and resistance remain in the solar interior, if there is such a situation, the micro-black hole sun will continue to be material themselves, the quality of micro-black holes continue to increase, decreasing the quality of the sun. At first, it seems that the sun looks nothing happened, after millions of years of continuous suction on macrophages, and finally one day, the sun's nuclear fusion within the complete destruction of the system, the entire Sun Microsystems will suddenly collapse into a black hole, micro black holes will be changed has become a black hole about the quality of the sun, Earth and other planets of the sun is still around that has the quality of the functioning of small celestial bodies, and the sun is shining no longer exists, the Earth's surface temperature dropped rapidly, and finally become a no life the world can not survive in the cold.

Of course, micro black holes may also be a direct hit on Earth, if there is such a phenomenon and the micro-black holes directly into the sun of their situation is similar, that is, either to wear over the Earth, or Earth macrophage depleted suction, and finally collapse into a black hole the earth.

With regard to the threat of micro black holes have to be considered in both cases, micro-black holes do exist based on the assumption, and the other is to analyze the authenticity of the existence of micro-black hole.

If we assume that micro black holes do exist, after 150 million years after the evaporation, a small number of survivors of the large number of micro-black hole and we will not encounter a higher than hundred billion years. Even if met, there will be three kinds of results, the first results of the sun while wearing a micro-black hole that will not pose much harm to the sun; the second result, into the solar interior, solar absorption material macrophages to collapse and destruction. These two results have been described before.

The third result is micro-black holes are captured by the sun's gravity, the solar system to become a member of the family. Micro-black holes as celestial bodies smaller than the sun, when its scope into the sun's gravity, but also has some speed, do not hit as long as the sun, captured by the sun as a celestial body by its own rule is very natural.

In the above-mentioned three kinds of potential, the third largest possible probability, because the sun crashed into the need for very accurate, and should be captured by the sun's gravitational force as long as access to sufficient scope; first the probability of a possible second, because a celestial body in relation to the relative speed of the other celestial bodies are usually very high, especially in the powerful role of gravity, would put this higher speed; The second possibility is the lowest probability, as a celestial body slowly crashed into the possibility of another celestial body is far too small. In the above-mentioned three possible in fact only the second smallest possible probability of the sun can really pose a threat, which makes the threat of micro black holes become more insignificant.

Here we will look at the authenticity of the existence of micro-black hole, in accordance with the famous scientist Stephen Hawking's theory, the existence of extensive micro-black hole all galaxies in the universe and each space, if this is really the case, it will have a micro-black hole absorption macrophages stars because the universe has a number of billions of stars, since the prevalence of micro-black hole, it is impossible to not encounter micro-black hole and stellar absorption by macrophages, then If so, then there will certainly be the star and release a sudden collapse of a large number of X ray events, if we are surrounded by micro-black hole, it should also have their objects swallowed and X-ray of the situation out. However, the observation of the vast universe, we still did not find evidence of micro-black hole.

 (2) Threat of antimatter planet

Antimatter is based on Big Bang cosmology deduced from the. We know that the composition of the material is the basic unit of atoms, atomic nuclei from the center and the outer electron of the atomic nucleus composed of protons and neutrons while, electronic with negative charge, positively charged protons, neutrons with no charge. The water we drink is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, composed of water molecules, the salt we eat is from a sodium atom and a chlorine atom molecule composed of sodium chloride. What we have seen and felt by all substances are composed of countless electronics, protons, neutrons, as well as by their composition of atoms and molecules exist in this universe.

However, according to the principle of the Big Bang cosmology, the formation of the universe in the Big Bang, while the material world, should also be formed almost the same amount of antimatter. So-called anti-material, that is, with the negative charge of the electronic band corresponding to the positively charged anti-electron, and the positively charged protons with the corresponding negative charge of the anti-protons, neutrons and anti-neutron although not with the same charge, but otherwise, the opposite is true. Anti-e, anti-protons and anti-neutrons can combine to form an anti-nuclear, anti-atoms and the formation of a combination of different anti-molecule, to form the anti-material world.

Earlier scientists from the laboratory to obtain an anti-electron, anti-protons and anti-neutrons, which will happen with the material and annihilate each other, releasing energy and γ-ray. If the sun and the sun the size of a planet antimatter meet, will be turned into a huge fireball and a very strong γ-ray, and then will disappear, the disappearance of the sun will exist in the form of energy in the universe. Therefore, if the sun hit a large anti-material objects, will be the extinction of the human disaster.

So, if Big Bang cosmology, in accordance with the judge, the existence of the universe, and material of antimatter roughly equal, the universe is full of antimatter bound, so that will inevitably occur and material antimatter planet annihilate each other and produce events, but the reality is that how are we doing?

Over the years, in the search for anti-material, scientists have done a lot of work, which concluded that in light of 30 million are certainly not anti-material objects. That is, where in our Milky Way galaxy and the group will definitely not anti-material objects.

Principles of scientists is not difficult to understand in order to determine whether the sun is antimatter as an example, the solar wind blowing all the time in our planet, the solar wind is the main component of the proton, if the sun is the anti-material, it will produce an anti-proton protons, the earth must always face the anti-proton annihilation. In fact, this situation does not exist, so the sun can be confirmed by the composition of the material rather than antimatter.

The same method can be used for the Milky Way and the galaxy cluster observations. In our Milky Way and nearby galaxies, the cosmic rays are everywhere as the particles in flight, and they do not occur with any celestial annihilation, it is proved in our local group of galaxies and the Milky Way there are no major celestial bodies of the existence of antimatter.

However, for more distant galaxies we do not have sufficient basis for the. Because we only receive the astronomical observations of distant celestial light, material and photon radiation, anti-radiation reflective material will be sub, but the photon is neutral, photons with sub-reflector are identical particles, we can see that for more distant objects, we can not afford today to determine the exact composition by material or by the composition of antimatter. Of course, neutrino astrophysics is also radiation, neutrino radiation from the material and radioactive substances by the anti-anti-neutrino is definitely not the same, but neutrinos interact with any substances are very weak, as issued by the sun neutrinos can penetrate the earth unimpeded, and what almost no wear and tear, therefore, to design a device capable of receiving them is very difficult.

Then, on the threat of antimatter, the distance Leaving aside whether it is really a large number of anti-material objects exist, only 30 million light-years of anti-material objects are not the definite conclusion, we can sit back and relax to live in the solar system, 30 million light-years in addition to material objects even if there are anti-collision system, at least after a few of ten billions of years to reach, and after a few of ten billions years, sun does not exist already.

IV. End of universe

The end of the universe is no doubt that the end of human being, in fact, far from being in the universe before the end of the universe should have doing not have the conditions for human survival. In that case, the universe will end how and when coming to an end?

Our rapid expansion of the universe is a universe, the expansion of its power comes from 150 million years ago the Big Bang, but the universe, there is a ubiquitous force in restrict such expansion, that is, between material and gravity, the size of gravity depends on the quality of the material universe, as well as the distance between the material.

Is the expansion of the universe, the ultimate force of gravity to overcome substance or substances in the final gravitational force to overcome the expansion of the universe, which is to decide the ultimate fate of the universe, the fundamental factors? If the strength of the expansion of the universe to overcome the gravitational material universe, the universe will continue to expand, opening up the universe called. Conversely, if the material universe, the gravitational force to overcome the expansion of the universe, in a number of billion years after the expansion of the universe will reach the maximum, and then the effects of gravity starts to contract, and the last to return to the starting point of the universe, said the outcome of such a universe for the closure of the universe. Cosmology the Big Bang created the universe model, the universe, the ultimate outcome may be only two, then the universe will take a in the end how the end of ourselves?

If we can know exactly what the universe's average density of the material to determine the outcome of the future of the universe is not a difficult job for him, but apart from the universe does not know the depth of our material can be seen, there are a large number of us do not understand dark matter, which makes the universe we can not clearly determine the future. Allow us to elaborate here only two types of assumptions.

The first is, if our universe is an open universe, the galaxies around us will continue to run away from us, a number of trillion years, we can see only the universe of the galaxies in our group of more than 30 of these galaxies, while the other galaxies are out of our sight, that is, observing the use of any equipment not be able to see, then, we have observed the universe as if the universe only one tenth billion today.

In other galaxy clusters (groups) will be the same, because clusters of galaxies (group) as independent objects in the universe system, its internal galaxies are linked, and are outside the galaxy would be far away from away, until no longer be able to see.

The galaxy clusters (groups) are not static within each galaxy will continue to merge, so that the increasing scale of galaxies to form the number of super-galaxies. Have to rely on nuclear fusion as a result of the star to the issue of light and heat, the hydrogen in the universe after the depletion of elements in the universe only brown dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, which are the stars of the wreckage after the death of the universe it is this the end of the stellar period, enter degenerate period. During this period will be after a few of trillion years.  

Degenerate during the period much longer than the star, at least until after the end of 1037. This period is the star of the wreckage after the death of the collision, the black hole in such a collision would be swallowed up all the remnants of the celestial bodies, and another black hole collision, the collision in the black hole is a small black hole into a black hole, which the quality of the black hole become larger and larger. Thus, in the post-1037 period of the universe will enter a black hole.

The black hole period is much longer than acquiring period. The greater the quality of the black hole, the lower surface temperature, the slower the rate of evaporation, the black hole will last a long period of time can not be calculated, only a concept can be used as a reference, that is, a solar mass black hole evaporation period in 1065, and a the quality of the Milky Way's black hole evaporation period of 10100 years. When all of the black hole evaporation after all, the universe will enter its final period, that is, the dark period, when only the energy of the universe rather than any celestial body.

Second, if our universe is a closed universe, the universe will reach in a number of trillion years its maximum, and then to stop the expansion, in turn begun to shrink. At this point, standing far away to observe the Milky Way galaxy, all galaxies will no longer be away from our left, but closer to us. When the arrival of this day depends on the density of the material universe may be, at least it appears from today to stop the universe there is no sign of expansion. Observation of human vision of the universe while not exhaustive, but we can observe galaxies away from our borders speed of more than 90% of the speed of light, which would indicate that many millions of years of expansion of the universe will not stop.

It is basically to determine the universe of the contraction process and the expansion of the universe is basically symmetrical course, how long it will be the expansion of time how long the contraction time.

When the contraction of the universe from its destination when there are 150 million years, the background cosmic radiation temperature of the universe more or less the same as today is around 3K; When 10 million years from the end of contraction, the background temperature of up to 30K, galaxy clusters began to merge; When the end of 1 million years from the time of the background cosmic radiation temperature to rise to 300K, that is to say, the general temperature of the universe than it is today Earth's temperature is higher, life has been difficult to survive in the universe; then, with the universe continuous contraction, as well as the background of rising temperatures, the universe, the sky will be dark today's bright colors slowly change, and then turned into a fiery red; when the end of 30 years from when the universe temperature up to 3000K, atoms were cracking, material to nuclear, electronics, photon and neutrino form; then the sky will no longer be transparent; when away from the end of 1 hour when the temperature of the universe to reach 100 million K, the main component of the universe as photons and neutrinos; from the end of 3 minutes when the temperature of the universe one billion K, the universe is full of electronics, neutrinos and their anti-particles, and a small number of protons and neutrons; when the seconds from the end of 10-4, the temperature of the universe as much as one trillion K, the universe of only neutrons, protons and their anti-particles; when 10-35 seconds from the end of the universe's temperature up to 1027K, the four forces of nature attributed to reunification; when 10-43 seconds from the end of the universe's temperature up to 1032 K, rapid contraction of the universe, and then reach the end.

The threat of the end of the universe to the overall survival of the human is so distant from us that  it has no direct relevance for us to talking about these issues. But as one of the factors explaining survival of mankind, it is necessary to thoroughly explain the problem.